At about 5 a. Suddenly, a shot was fired from an undetermined gun, and a cloud of musket smoke soon covered the green.
When the brief Battle of Lexington ended, eight Americans lay dead or dying and 10 others were wounded. Only one British soldier was injured, but the American Revolution had begun.
Bytensions between the American colonies and the British government approached the breaking point, especially in Massachusettswhere Patriot leaders formed a shadow revolutionary government and trained militias to prepare for armed conflict with the British troops occupying Boston.
In the spring ofGeneral Thomas Gage, the British governor of Massachusetts, received instructions from England to seize all stores of weapons and gunpowder accessible to the American insurgents.
The Boston Patriots had been preparing for such a military action by the British for some time, and upon learning of the British plan, Patriots Paul Revere and William Dawes were ordered to set out to rouse the militiamen and warn Adams and Hancock.
When the British troops arrived at Lexington, Adams, Hancock and Revere had already fled to Philadelphia, and a group of militiamen were waiting.
2019-2020 U.S. Flu Season: Preliminary Burden Estimates
The Patriots were routed within minutes, but warfare had begun, leading to calls to arms across the Massachusetts countryside. When the British troops reached Concord at about 7 a. They managed to destroy the military supplies the Americans had collected but were soon advanced against by a gang of minutemen, who inflicted numerous casualties.
Lieutenant Colonel Francis Smith, the overall commander of the British force, ordered his men to return to Boston without directly engaging the Americans. As the British retraced their mile journey, their lines were constantly beset by Patriot marksmen firing at them Indian-style from behind trees, rocks, and stone walls. By the time the British finally reached the safety of Boston, nearly British soldiers had been killed, wounded, or were missing in action.
The Patriots suffered fewer than casualties. The battles of Lexington and Concord were the first battles of the American Revolution, a conflict that would escalate from a colonial uprising into a world war that, seven years later, would give birth to the independent United States of America.
But if you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! Five teenagers from Harlem were wrongly convicted of the crime, which shocked New Yorkers for its randomness and viciousness and On April 19,the first blood of the American Civil War is shed when a secessionist mob in Baltimore attacks Massachusetts troops bound for Washington, D.
Four soldiers and 12 rioters were killed. One week earlier, on April 12, the Civil War began when Confederate shore Just after 9 a.
The blast collapsed the north face of the nine-story building, instantly killing more than people and trapping dozens more in the rubble. Emergency crews At Mount Carmel in Waco, Texas, the Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI launches a tear-gas assault on the Branch Davidian compound, ending a tense day standoff between the federal government and an armed religious cult.
By the end of the day, the compound was burned to the On April 19,John J. Olympic team manager John Graham, who was inspired by the Sign up now to learn about This Day in History straight from your inbox. As a prelude to a massive antiwar protest, Vietnam Veterans Against the War begin a five-day demonstration in Washington, D.To save this word, you'll need to log in.
He quit smoking six years ago. She renews her lease every year. We see them once or twice a year. It feels like we've been standing in line for a year.
That team hasn't won in years. It's been years since I've been on an airplane. The work should be done by the end of the year. She was born in the year See More Recent Examples on the Web In what month of are the Tokyo Summer Olympics now scheduled to begin -- almost exactly a year after they were originally supposed to be held?
Send us feedback. Accessed 19 Apr. Keep scrolling for more More Definitions for year year. What It Is In the business world, a year is a month period, four-quarter period, or period stretch of time. It is not always days long, though it is usually very close to that.
In business, note that a fiscal year does not always go from January 1 to December 31; many companies have fiscal years beginning at other times. How It Works Years are important because they create time frames for comparing information. Why It Matters Yearly information is useful in looking for trends or measuring performance against goals. Remember, though that comparing year-over-year information among companies with different fiscal-year start dates can distort an analysis: The time included may vary and seasonal factors may become skewed.
It is also important to remember that the extra day in leap years may also distort comparisons. Source: Investing Answers year. Please tell us where you read or heard it including the quote, if possible. What does capricious mean? Test Your Knowledge - and learn some interesting things along the way. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free!
We have a hard decision to make.Year-Over-Year YOY is a frequently used financial comparison for comparing two or more measurable events on an annualized basis.
Looking at YOY performance allows for gauging if a company's financial performance is improving, static, or worsening.
For example, in financial reports, you may read that a particular business reported its revenues increased for the third quarter, on a YOY basis, for the last three years. YOY comparisons are a popular and effective way to evaluate the financial performance of a company and the performance of investments.
Any measurable event that repeats annually can be compared on a YOY basis. Common YOY comparisons include annual, quarterly, and monthly performance. YOY measurements facilitate the cross-comparison of sets of data. This YOY comparison is also valuable for investment portfolios. Investors like to examine YOY performance to see how performance changes across time.
YOY comparisons are popular when analyzing a company's performance because they help mitigate seasonalitya factor that can influence most businesses.
Sales, profits, and other financial metrics change during different periods of the year because most lines of business have a peak season and a low demand season.
For example, retailers have a peak demand season during the holiday shopping season, which falls in the fourth quarter of the year. To properly quantify a company's performance, it makes sense to compare revenue and profits year-over-year. It's important to compare the fourth-quarter performance in one year to the fourth-quarter performance in other years.
If an investor looks at a retailer's results in the fourth quarter versus the prior third quarter, it might appear a company is undergoing unprecedented growth when it is seasonality that is influencing the difference in the results. Similarly, in a comparison of the fourth quarter to the following first quarter, there might appear a dramatic decline when this could also be a result of seasonality.
YOY also differs from the term " sequential ," which measures one quarter or month to the previous one and allows investors to see linear growth. For instance, the number of cell phones a tech company sold in the fourth quarter compared to the third quarter, or the number of seats an airline filled in January compared to December. In a NASDAQ reportKellogg Company released mixed results for fourth quarterrevealing that its year-over-year earnings continue to decline, even while sales have increased following corporate acquisitions.
The company has also revealed plans to reorganize its North America and Asia-Pacific segments, removing several divisions from its North America segment and reorganizing its Asia-Pacific segment into Kellogg Asia, Middle East, and Africa. Company Profiles. Fundamental Analysis. Tools for Fundamental Analysis. Your Money. Personal Finance. Your Practice. Popular Courses.However, more than 20 players on the ballot this year were probably worthy of being enshrined in Cooperstown.
The influential al Qaeda propagandist, who was born in New Mexico, died in a U.
A lot of people ring in the New Year with vows to lose weight and exercise. Elsewhere, courts throughout the country have placed limits on speech this year. In only a tenth as many tourists came as had come the year before.
House-rent is recorded at the rate of thirty dollars a year. Many of them had resided here for more than a yearand had never been seen intoxicated before.
I heard of the parrots a year or two later as giving lessons in Italian to an English maid. He drifted to Belleville, Illinois, aboutand was followed a year later by his parents. But who was to dream that he would arrange to leave it at such an unearthly time of the morning at this dark season of the year?
In addition to the idiom beginning with year. Advertisement top definitions quizzes related content examples explore dictionary british idioms and phrases year. Compare common yearleap year. Also called lunar year. Also called astronomical yearequinoctial year, solar year, tropical year. Also called sidereal year. Compare anomalistic year. Take this quiz on the Words of the Day from April 6—12 to find out! Idioms for year a year and a daya period specified as the limit of time in various legal matters, as in determining a right or a liability, to allow for a full year by any way of counting.
Also year in, year out. Words nearby year yeageryeahyealingyeanyeanlingyearyear in, year outyear of confusionyear of graceyear zeroyear's mind.
Words related to year periodbreadthtermmileagespandiameterstretchsectionspaceportionheightwidthrangemagnitudelimitdurationradiuspiecesegmentdimension. Example sentences from the Web for year However, more than 20 players on the ballot this year were probably worthy of being enshrined in Cooperstown.
American Revolution begins at Battle of Lexington
How Skinny Is Too Skinny? Is Putin Turning to Terrorism in Ukraine? Quaker Hill Warren H. McClure's Magazine, Vol. The Hand of Ethelberta Thomas Hardy. Also called: civil year the period of time, the calendar yearcontaining days or in a leap year days. It is based on the Gregorian calendar, being divided into 12 calendar months, and is reckoned from January 1 to December Also called: astronomical yeartropical year the period of time, the solar yearduring which the earth makes one revolution around the sun, measured between two successive vernal equinoxes: equal to It is applied for certain purposes, such as to determine the time within which wrecks must be claimed.
Cross Validated is a question and answer site for people interested in statistics, machine learning, data analysis, data mining, and data visualization. It only takes a minute to sign up. I am a beginner in panel data analysis and also Stata, and I cant find the answer anywhere. I am so confused as I am not sure whether industry and year fixed effects are equivalent to cross-section and period fixed effects.
This assumes year is a variable which holds the year, industry is a variable that holds the industry etc In this context, a fixed effect regression or within estimator is a method for modelling with panel or longitudinal data. This estimator differences out the average of the observational unit's variables from each variable:. The regression is performed on the transformed variables. In stata, this is implemented using the xtreg command with the fe option.
This command will probably not work in your situation, since it is designed for differencing out averages for each observational unit. It is likely that you will have multiple companies that operate in a particular industry and you want to difference out the industry average. This is a simple case of a hierarchical linear model. The areg command can be useful when the number of levels of the absorbed variable the number of industries in this example is high.
If it is true that there are multiple firms within the same industry as I suspect to be the case, then it is a common practice, which is good sense and asymptotically supported, to cluster your standard errors at the industry level.
In stata, this is typically accomplished with the vce cluster varname option. So, for example, your regress command would become. On a similar note, a fairly recent development has been made in constructing two-way and multiway cluster robust standard errors See, for example, the Cameron, Gelbach, and Miller's paper in the Journal of Business and Economic Statistics.
If you are worried about shocks that affect the entire set of stocks in a given time period, this may be worth implementing. Doug Miller wrote an. Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Home Questions Tags Users Unanswered. Asked 3 years, 11 months ago. Active 1 year, 7 months ago. Viewed 36k times. Nick Cox Milica Matovic Milica Matovic 33 1 1 gold badge 1 1 silver badge 4 4 bronze badges. Masterov May 10 '16 at Active Oldest Votes. A basic strategy might be to: use xtset industryvar in Stata to indicate you want fixed effects for each unique value of industryvar.
Generate dummy variables for every year.NOTE: The week of April 4 was the last week in-season influenza burden estimates will be provided for the season. This web page provides weekly, preliminary estimates of the cumulative in-season numbers of flu illnesses, medical visits, hospitalizations, and deaths in the United States.
CDC does not know the exact number of people who have been sick and affected by influenza because influenza is not a reportable disease in most areas of the U. First, the cumulative rate of laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations reported during the season may be an under-estimate of the rate at the end of the season because of identification and reporting delays. Second, rates of laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations were adjusted for the frequency of influenza testing and the sensitivity of influenza diagnostic assays.
However, data on testing practices during the season are not available in real-time. CDC used data on testing practices from the past influenza seasons as a proxy. Burden estimates will be updated at a later date when data on contemporary testing practices become available.
Third, estimates of influenza-associated illness and medical visits are based on data from prior seasons, which may not be accurate if the seriousness of illness or patterns of care-seeking have changed.
The cumulative burden of influenza is an estimate of the number of people who have been sick, seen a healthcare provider, been hospitalized, or died as a result of influenza since October 01, CDC does not know the exact number of people who have been sick and affected by influenza because influenza is not a reportable disease in most areas of the United States.
Rates of hospitalization were then multiplied by previously estimated ratio of hospitalizations to symptomatic illnesses, and frequency of seeking medical care to calculate symptomatic illnesses, medical visits, and deaths associated with seasonal influenza, respectively.
The estimates of cumulative burden of seasonal influenza are considered preliminary and may change each week as new laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations are reported to CDC.
New reports include both new admissions that have occurred during the reporting week and also patients admitted in previous weeks that have been newly reported to CDC. The number of hospitalizations estimated so far this season is lower than end-of-season total hospitalization estimates for any season since CDC began making these estimates. This table also summarizes all estimated influenza disease burden, by season, in U. There are several other lines on the right side of the graph under Total hospitalizations at end of past seasons.
This allows for the comparison of the current season to past seasons. Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link. Influenza Flu. Section Navigation. Flu Season: Preliminary Burden Estimates. Minus Related Pages. On This Page. Flu Season. Preliminary Cumulative Estimates of Hospitalizations in the U.
Estimated number of influenza-associated hospitalizations The y-axis extends from 0 to 1 million. The x-axis is a timeline starting October 5, and extending to May 30, What CDC Does. To receive weekly email updates about Seasonal Flu, enter your email address: Email Address. What's this? Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website. Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website.
In tropical and subtropical regions, several geographical sectors do not present defined seasons; but in the seasonal tropicsthe annual wet and dry seasons are recognized and tracked.
A calendar year is an approximation of the number of days of the Earth's orbital period, as counted in a given calendar. The Gregorian calendaror modern calendar, presents its calendar year to be either a common year of days or a leap year of days, as do the Julian calendars ; see below.
For the Gregorian calendar, the average length of the calendar year the mean year across the complete leap cycle of years is In English, the abbreviations y and yr are commonly used.
In astronomy, the Julian year is a unit of time ; it is defined as The word year is also used for periods loosely associated with, but not identical to, the calendar or astronomical year, such as the seasonal yearthe fiscal yearthe academic yearetc.
Similarly, year can mean the orbital period of any planet ; for example, a Martian year and a Venusian year are examples of the time a planet takes to transit one complete orbit.
The term can also be used in reference to any long period or cycle, such as the Great Year. A number of English words are derived from Latin annussuch as annualannuityanniversaryetc. In some languages, it is common to count years by referencing to one season, as in "summers", or "winters", or "harvests". Astronomical years do not have an integer number of days or lunar months. Any calendar that follows an astronomical year must have a system of intercalation such as leap years.
In the Julian calendar, the average mean length of a year is In a non-leap year, there are days, in a leap year there are days. A leap year occurs every fourth year, or leap year, during which a leap day is intercalated into the month of February. The name " Leap Day " is applied to the added day. The Revised Julian calendarproposed in and used in some Eastern Orthodox Churcheshas leap years every years, for the average mean year length of In the year CE, the Gregorian and Revised Julian calendars will begin to differ by one calendar day.
The Gregorian calendar attempts to cause the northward equinox to fall on or shortly before March 21 and hence it follows the northward equinox yearor tropical year. It is estimated that by the year CE, the northward equinox will fall back by one day in the Gregorian calendar, not because of this difference, but due to the slowing of the Earth's rotation and the associated lengthening of the day. Historically, lunisolar calendars intercalated entire leap months on an observational basis.
Lunisolar calendars have mostly fallen out of use except for liturgical reasons Hebrew calendarvarious Hindu calendars. A modern adaptation of the historical Jalali calendarknown as the Solar Hijri calendaris a purely solar calendar with an irregular pattern of leap days based on observation or astronomical computationaiming to place new year Nowruz on the day of vernal equinox for the time zone of Tehranas opposed to using an algorithmic system of leap years.
A calendar era assigns a cardinal number to each sequential year, using a reference point in the past as the beginning of the era. The worldwide standard is the Anno Dominialthough some prefer the term Common Era because it has no explicit reference to Christianity.